Лосар. Тибетский новый год

Лосар. Тибетский новый год

27 февраля по тибетскому календарю  наступает 2144 год. Это год Огненной птицы (Петуха).

Название Losar ( ལོ་གསར ) — происходит из двух слов lo — «Год» и sar — «Новый». Празднуется согласно тибетскому традиционному календарю, начиная с первого дня первого лунного месяца. Это один из самых важных праздников для тибетцев, символизирующий приход Нового года, очищение от всего старого и ветхого, ожидание лучшего, нового, большего и чистого. Лосар отмечается три дня, переплетая религиозные обряды и светские мероприятия, молитвы и танцы, посещение храмов и светские вечеринки.

 

Подготовка

Гутор — предпоследний день перед Лосаром (29 день 12-того лунного месяца).  В этот день в монастырях проводят пуджу в честь божеств-защитников, а тибетцы готовят гутук (guthuk) — специальный новогодний суп с пельменями. Говорят, что Гутор — это единственный день, когда все тибетцы, даже Его Святейшество Далай-лама, едят одинаковую пищу.

 

В предпраздничные пельмени помещают особые символы, которые могут многое рассказать о характере человека и о том, каким будет для него наступающий год. Найденная в пельмене ниточка говорит о том, что жизнь человека будет долгой. Кусочек белой шерсти — о чистосердечии, а уголек — о неблагих помыслах. Перец — свидетельство того, что у вас слишком злой язык. Если в семье очень много родственников, в пельмени обычно вкладываются записочки. Подробнее

Когда суп разливается по тарелкам, все с огромным наслаждением показывают друг другу, что им выпало. Все это сопровождается шутками — прекрасный способ завершить год на веселой ноте.

Затем все принимают участие в ритуале изгнания неблагих сил и злых духов, которые чинили преграды в уходящем году. Все собравшиеся выливают остатки супа на вылепленную из теста фигурку, которая отдается на откуп неблагим силам. Фигурка, к которой каждый добавляет сжатые в кулаке кусочки теста и фрагменты своей одежды, затем выносится на отдаленный перекресток под звуки разрывающихся петард. Считается, что этот ритуал устраняет препятствия, которые могли бы возникнуть в следующем году и делает человека неприкосновенным для болезней и неудач.

Намкахан – канун Нового года (30 день 12-того лунного месяца)

За день до Нового года тибетцы наводят порядок, завершают украшение дома и приготовление домашнего алтаря, отдыхают и ждут наступления следующего дня бурных празднований.

Намкхан – последний день уходящего года. Всего через несколько часов наступит Новый год, обещая принести с собой процветание и благополучие. Кажется, будто все начнется с чистого листа.

Лосар (1 – 3 дни 1-го лунного месяца)

Ароматы традиционной выпечки «Кабсе» и кисло-сладкий вкус тибетского пива «Чанга» носятся в воздухе. Лосар начинается с подбрасывания ввысь горсточки подношений со словами «Таши делек!» — пожеланием процветания, крепкого здоровья и благополучия всем членам семьи и соседям.

 

На новогодний праздник даже молодые тибетцы облачаются в «чубы» (тибетские национальные костюмы) и направляются прямиком в храм или монастырь. Это первое место, которое они посещают в новом году. После этого они возвращаются домой и посвящают остаток дня праздничной трапезе, к которой они столь тщательно готовились. Первый день Нового года тибетцы проводят с семьей и ближайшими соседями.

Второй день

Со второго дня начинаются посещения родственников и друзей. Люди навещают друг друга, едят, пьют, поют и танцуют. В новогодние дни тибетцы не упускают случая поиграть в традиционные игры – «Шо» (кости) и «Пакчен». В последние время к этим древним играм добавились карты. Юные тибетцы на Лосар обычно получают деньги на подарки.

Третий день

На третий день новогодних праздников тибетцы вывешивают на крыше своих домов новые молитвенные флажки, заменяя ими старые, и возжигают благовония (санг). Горсточка ячменной муки подбрасывается в воздух с криками «Ки-ки Со-со Лха Гьяло!!!» (Пусть придет счастье, и победят боги!)

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